Many words commonly used in conversational or academic English have different meanings in the context of science writing.
Professional scientists and engineers are often required to explain their work to non-specialists, including members of the media and the general public.
There are 12 main verb tenses in English and each serves a distinct purpose.
Transitions are used to help sentences, paragraphs, and ideas "flow" together. This allows for ease of reading and comprehension by a reader.
Conjunctive adverbs are commonly used as transitions that help sentences, ideas, and paragraphs flow.
A thesis statement represents the central insight that an author considers the most significant or interesting aspect of his or her topic or area of research.
Thesis proposals are intended to demonstrate that there is a particular issue requiring coverage, there is a concrete plan, and there are enough resources to carry out the plan.
Definitions of common terms used to describe the requirements for types of academic writing assignments.
Tables and figures are used to display complex data in academic papers.
The verb and the subject within a sentence must agree in number. Thus, a singular subject takes a singular verb and a plural subject takes a plural verb.
At its most basic level, a sentence is a sequence of words that conveys a complete thought.
Sentences that do not express a complete thought or do not have a subject and a verb are incomplete.
Scientific writing requires grammatical and stylistic approaches that differ from those preferred in other academic disciplines.
Repetitious expressions and redundancies are common in speaking and writing. For concision in academic writing, these should be eliminated.
The decision of whether to use direct quotations or to paraphrase depends on the purpose of the information. Citations are necessary for an author to show the reader where the information came from.
Using single and double quotation marks.
Problematic punctuation marks.
Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. They provide a shortcut to avoid repeating any persons, places, or things.
Tips for writing professional emails. The majority of business email interactions will use a formal or semi-formal tone.
Speaking is fundamentally different from writing because listening is fundamentally different from reading. It is storytelling, and you are the storyteller.